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KAS – Mains

Kerala Administrative Service
(Mains) Detailed Syllabus




Maximum Marks:100
Duration :2 Hours
(A) History (India and Kerala)
❖ Ancient and Medieval Period: –
1. Salient features and major landmarks of ancient and medieval India.
2. Art, culture, literature and Architecture.
3. Major Dynasties, their administrative system, social, religious and economic
conditions prominent movements.
❖ Modern Period: –
1. Modern Indian History (from the 18th century up to the present) significant events,
personalities and issues.
2. India – Struggle for independence.
3. Social and religious reform movements in the 19th and 20th century.
4. India after Independence, Post independent consolidation and reorganisation.
5. Independent India and her neighbours.
❖ Kerala History (from 18th century): –
1. Pre-Independence socio-political movements.
2. Formation of Kerala State, Political parties, movements, Governments, Landmark
legislations and policies.

(B) History of the World (from mid-18th century)
1. Industrial revolution
2. World wars
3. Re-drawing of National Boundaries
4. Colonialisation and decolonialisation,
5. Globalisation
6. Communism, Capitalism, Socialism – their forms and effects in society.
(C) Cultural Heritage of Kerala:
1. Cultural Heritage of Kerala Art Forms, literature, sculpture, architecture, salient
features of society
2. Kerala Tribal culture, Pilgrimage, Tourist places, Folk Culture, Cinema, Theatre
3. History and revolution of Malayalam language and literature.

Maximum Marks:100
Duration :2 Hours
(A) Indian Constitution, Public Administration, Political System,
Governance, Social Justice and International Relations.
1. Indian Constitution and its salient features
2. Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States, Parliament and State
Legislatures – structure, function, power and privileges. Issues and challenges
pertaining to Federal Structure – Devolution of Power and Finances up to local levels
and challenges therein
3. Constitutional Authorities – Powers, Functions and Responsibilities
4. Panchayati Raj, Public Policy and Governance, Impact of L.P.G on Governance
5. Statutory, Regulatory and Quasi-judicial bodies
6. Rights Issues (Human rights, Women rights, SC/ST rights, Child rights, etc.),
7. Important Acts.
8. India’s Foreign Policy, International Organisations, International Treaties and Forums,
their structure and mandate.
9. Judiciary in India – Structure and functions, important provisions relating to
Emergency and Constitutional amendments, Judicial review, Public Interest
Litigation, Land Revenue Laws.
10. Fundamental rights, fundamental duties and Directive Principles
11. Principles of Administrative Law.
(B) Science and Technology
1. Science and Technology: Nature and scope of Science and Technology, Relevance of
S&T, National policy on S&T and innovations, Basics of everyday science, Human
body, Public Health and Community Medicine, Food and Nutrition, Health Care.

Institutes and Organization in India promoting integration of S&T and Innovation, their
activities and contributions, Contribution of Prominent Indian Scientists.
2. ICT: Nature and Scope of ICT, ICT in day today life, ICT and industry, ICT and
Governance – various Government schemes promoting use of ICT, e-Governance
Programmes and Services, Netiquettes, Cyber Security concerns – National Cyber
Crime Policy. MIS. Artificial Intelligence – benefits and impacts, Robotics.
3. Technology in Space and Defence: Evolution of Indian Space Programme, ISRO –
it’s activities and achievements, various Satellite Programmes – DRDO-vision, mission
and activities.
4. Energy requirement and efficiency: India’s existing energy needs and deficit, India’s
energy resources and dependence, Renewable and Non-renewable energy resources,
Energy Policy of India – Government Policies and Programmes, Energy Security and
Nuclear Policy of India.
5. Environmental Science: Issues and concerns related to environment, its legal aspects,
policies and treaties for the protection of environment at the National and the
International level, Environment protection for sustainable development. Biodiversity
– its importance and concerns, Climate change, International initiatives (Policies,
Protocols) and India’s commitment, Western Ghats, Features, Characteristics and
issues. Forest and wildlife – Legal framework for Forest and Wildlife Conservation in
India. Environmental Hazards, Pollution, Carbon Emission, Global Warming. National
action plans on climate change and Disaster Management. Developments in
Biotechnology, Green Technology and Nanotechnology.
(C) Current Issues in given topics

Maximum Marks:100
Duration :2 Hours
(A) Economy and Planning
1. Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian economy in post reform period –
new economic reforms, NITI Aayog, National Income and Per Capita Income, Sectoral
Composition (Output and Employment) – Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.
Development under different policy regimes (including Five Year Plans) – Goals,
Constraints, Institutions and Policy framework.
2. Agriculture Sector, Land Reforms in India, Technological change in Agriculture –
Major Crops and Cropping patterns in various parts of the Country, Irrigation, Pricing
of agriculture inputs and outputs, Agricultural Finance Policy and Marketing, Issues in
Food Security and Public Distribution System, Green Revolution, Policies for
sustainable agriculture and organic farming.
3. Industrial Policy, Public Sector enterprises and their performance, Growth and pattern
of industrialization, Small-scale sector, Productivity in industrial sector, SEZ and

industrialization, foreign investment and competition policy, e-Commerce, Effects of
liberalisation on the economy.
4. Infrastructure in Indian Economy, Meaning and importance of infrastructure – Water
Supply and Sanitation- Energy and Power – Science and Technology – Rural and Urban
Infrastructure, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, Telecommunication, Dams, Inland
Waterways. Social Impact Assessment.

5. Trends and Patterns in structure of population over time – Growth rate, Gender Rural-
Urban Migration, Literacy, Regional Structure and trends of Poverty and Inequality,

Unemployment – trends, Structure and National Rural Employment policies. Indicators
of development – Physical Quality of Life Index, Human Development Index, Human
Poverty Index, Gender Development Index, National Happiness Index.
6. Indian Public Finance, Government Budgeting, Indian Tax System, Public
Expenditure, Public Debt, Deficit and Subsidies in the Indian Economy. Centre-State
financial relation. Recent fiscal and monetary policy issues and their impact, structure
of Indian Banking and Non-Banking Financial Institutions and reforms, GST: Concept
and Implications. Stock exchange and share market.
7. Trend, Composition, Structure and direction of India’s Foreign Trade. India’s Balance
of payments situation in post reforms period.
8. Economy of Kerala State-an overview, Population, Major agriculture, Industry, Service
sector issues. Infrastructure and resources, Major Developmental Projects, Programmes
and Schemes. Co-operative Sector. History and relevant policies in traditional
industries, IT Sector, Pravasi and Foreign remittance.
9. Kerala model development – (Land reforms, Social security, devolution of Power,
Decentralised Planning, Housing, Tourism, Women Empowerment, Social Welfare
Schemes, Disaster Management. Role and Function of Kerala Planning Board,
Achievements of Kerala in Health and Education Sector: Policies, Programmes,
Initiatives and Impacts.
(B) Geography
1. General Geography: Solar system, Motion of Earth, Concept of time, Seasons,
Internal structure of the Earth, Major Landforms and their features.
Atmosphere – Structure and Composition, elements and factors of Climate,
Airmasses and Fronts, atmospheric disturbances.
Oceans: Physical, Chemical and Biological characteristics, Hydrological Disasters,
Marine and Continental Resources.
2. Physical, Social, Economic Geography of World, India and Kerala
3. Geophysical phenomena like Earthquake, Tsunami, Volcanoes, Cyclone, Flood,
Current Issues in Economy and Planning & Geography